In response, Sculley effused about the joys of being Jobs’s partner

In response, Sculley effused about the joys of being Jobs’s partner for the past year, and he

concluded with a line that, for different reasons, everyone at the table found memorable.

“Apple has one leader,” he said, “Steve and me.” He looked across the room, caught Jobs’s

eye, and watched him smile. “It was as if we were communicating with each other,” Sculley

 

recalled. But he also noticed that Arthur Rock and some of the others were looking quizzical,

perhaps even skeptical. They were worried that Jobs was completely rolling him. They had hired

Sculley to control Jobs, and now it was clear that Jobs was the one in control. “Sculley was so

eager for Steve’s approval that he was unable to stand up to him,” Rock recalled.

the emotion as he built toward the present:

It is now 1984. It appears that IBM wants it all. Apple is perceived to be the only hope to offer

IBM a run for its money. Dealers, after initially welcoming IBM with open arms, now fear an

IBM-dominated and-controlled future and are turning back to Apple as the only force who

can ensure their future freedom. IBM wants it all, and is aiming its guns at its last obstacle to

industry control, Apple. Will Big Blue dominate the entire computer industry? The entire

information age? Was George Orwell right?

As he built to the climax, the audience went from murmuring to applauding to a frenzy of cheering

and chanting. But before they could answer the Orwell question, the auditorium went black and

the “1984” commercial appeared on the screen. When it was over, the entire audience was on its feet cheering.

With a flair for the dramatic, Jobs walked across the dark stage to a small table with a cloth bag on it.

“Now I’d like to show you Macintosh in person,” he said. He took out the computer, keyboard, and mouse,

hooked them together deftly, then pulled one of the new 3?-inch floppies from his shirt pocket.

The theme from Chariots of Fire began to play. Jobs held his breath for a moment, because the demo

had not worked well the night before. But this time it ran flawlessly. The word “MACINTOSH” scrolled

horizontally onscreen, then underneath it the words “Insanely great” appeared in script, as if being slowly

written by hand. Not used to such beautiful graphic displays, the audience quieted for a moment.

A few gasps could be heard. And then, in rapid succession, came a series of screen shots: Bill Atkinson’s

QuickDraw graphics package followed by displays of different fonts, documents, charts, drawings, a chess game,

 

a spreadsheet, and a

rendering of Steve Jobs

with a thought bubble

containing a Macintosh.

shb419.com

Keeping Jobs happy and deferring to his expertise may have

Keeping Jobs happy and deferring to his expertise may have seemed like a smart strategy to Sculley.

But he failed to realize that it was not in Jobs’s nature to share control. Deference did not come naturally

to him. He began to become more vocal about how he thought the company should be run. At the 1984

 

business strategy meeting, for example, he pushed to make the company’s centralized sales and marketing

staffs bid on the right to provide their services to the various product divisions. (This would have meant,

 

for example, that the Macintosh group could decide not to use Apple’s marketing team and instead create

one of its own.) No one else was in favor, but Jobs kept trying to ram it through. “People were looking

to me to take control, to get him to sit down and shut up, but I didn’t,” Sculley recalled. As the meeting

broke up, he heard someone whisper, “Why doesn’t Sculley shut him up?”

 

As chairman of the company, Jobs went onstage first to start the shareholders’ meeting. He

did so with his own form of an invocation. “I’d like to open the meeting,” he said, “with a

twenty-year-old poem by Dylan—that’s Bob Dylan.” He broke into a little smile, then looked

down to read from the second verse of “The Times They Are a-Changin’.” His voice was high-pitched

as he raced through the ten lines, ending with “For the loser now / Will be later to win /

For the times they are a-changin’.” That song was the anthem that kept the multimillionaire board

chairman in touch with his counterculture self-image. He had a bootleg copy of his favorite version,

which was from the live concert Dylan performed, with Joan Baez, on Halloween 1964

at Lincoln Center’s Philharmonic Hall.

Sculley came onstage to report on the company’s earnings, and the audience started to become restless

as he droned on. Finally, he ended with a personal note. “The most important thing that has happened

to me in the last nine months at Apple has been a chance to develop a friendship with

 

Steve Jobs,” he said.

“For me, the rapport

we have developed

means an awful lot.”

www.shb419.com

When Jobs decided to build a state-of-the-art factory in Fremont to

When Jobs decided to build a state-of-the-art factory in Fremont to manufacture the Macintosh,

his aesthetic passions and controlling nature kicked into high gear. He wanted the machinery to

be painted in bright hues, like the Apple logo, but he spent so much time going over paint chips

that Apple’s manufacturing director, Matt Carter, finally just installed them in their usual beige and

 

gray. When Jobs took a tour, he ordered that the machines be repainted in the bright colors he

wanted. Carter objected; this was precision equipment, and repainting the machines could cause

problems. He turned out to be right. One of the most expensive machines, which got painted bright

 

blue, ended up not working properly and was dubbed “Steve’s folly.” Finally Carter quit. “It took so

much energy to fight him, and it was usually over something so pointless that finally I had enough,” he recalled.

be its salvation!” Levy pushed back. Rolling Stone was actually good, he said, and he asked Jobs

if he had read it recently. Jobs said that he had, an article about MTV that was “a piece of shit.”

Levy replied that he had written that article. Jobs, to his credit, didn’t back away from the assessment.

Instead he turned philosophical as he talked about the Macintosh. We are constantly benefiting from

advances that went before us and taking things that people before us developed, he said. “It’s a

wonderful, ecstatic feeling to create something that puts it back in the pool

of human experience and knowledge.”

Levy’s story didn’t make it to the cover. But in the future, every major product launch that Jobs was involved

in—at NeXT, at Pixar, and years later when he returned to Apple—would end

up on the cover of either Time, Newsweek, or Business Week.

January 24, 1984

Most of all, Jobs fretted about his presentation. Sculley fancied himself a good writer,

so he suggested changes in Jobs’s script. Jobs recalled being slightly annoyed, but their

relationship was still in the phase when he was lathering on flattery and stroking Sculley’s ego.

“I think of you just like Woz and Markkula,” he told Sculley. “You’re like one of the founders

of the company.

 

They founded the company,

but you and I are

founding the future.”

Sculley lapped it up.

sha419.com

Jobs had asked Hertzfeld and the gang to prepare a special screen

Jobs had asked Hertzfeld and the gang to prepare a special screen display for Sculley’s amusement.

“He’s really smart,” Jobs said. “You wouldn’t believe how smart he is.” The explanation that

Sculley might buy a lot of Macintoshes for Pepsi “sounded a little bit fishy to me,” Hertzfeld recalled,

 

but he and Susan Kare created a screen of Pepsi caps and cans that danced around with the Apple

logo. Hertzfeld was so excited he began waving his arms around during the demo, but Sculley seemed

underwhelmed. “He asked a few questions, but he didn’t seem all that interested,” Hertzfeld recalled.

 

He never ended up warming to Sculley. “He was incredibly phony, a complete poseur,” he later said.

“He pretended to be interested in technology, but he wasn’t. He was a marketing guy, and that is

what marketing guys are: paid poseurs.”

Matters came to a head when Jobs visited New York in March 1983 and was able to convert the

courtship into a blind and blinding romance. “I really think you’re the guy,” Jobs said as they walked

through Central Park. “I want you to come and work with me. I can learn so much from you.” Jobs,

who had cultivated father figures in the past, knew just how to play to Sculley’s ego and insecurities.

It worked. “I was smitten by him,” Sculley later admitted. “Steve was one of the brightest people

I’d ever met. I shared with him a passion for ideas.”

Sculley, who was interested in art history, steered them toward the Metropolitan Museum for a little

test of whether Jobs was really willing to learn from others. “I wanted to see how well he could take

coaching in a subject where he had no background,” he recalled. As they strolled through the Greek

and Roman antiquities, Sculley expounded on the difference between the Archaic sculpture of the sixth

century B.C. and the Periclean sculptures a century later. Jobs, who loved to pick up historical nuggets

he never learned in college, seemed to soak it in. “I gained a sense that I could be a teacher to a

brilliant student,” Sculley recalled. Once again he indulged the conceit that they were alike: “I saw

in him a mirror image of my younger self. I, too, was impatient, stubborn, arrogant, impetuous.

My mind exploded with ideas, often to the

 

exclusion of everything else.

I, too, was intolerant of

those who couldn’t live

up to my demands.”

shc419.com

Bill Atkinson, who had worked on both teams, thought it was not

Bill Atkinson, who had worked on both teams, thought it was not only callous, but unfair.

“These people had worked really hard and were brilliant engineers,” he said. But Jobs had latched

onto what he believed was a key management lesson from his Macintosh experience: You have to

 

be ruthless if you want to build a team of A players. “It’s too easy, as a team grows, to put up with a

few B players, and they then attract a few more B players, and soon you will even have some C players,”

he recalled. “The Macintosh experience taught me that A players like to work only with other

A players, which means you can’t indulge B players.”

shrieks that erupted. Instead of basking for a moment, it barreled ahead. “Unaccustomed as I am

to public speaking, I’d like to share with you a maxim I thought of the first time I met an IBM

mainframe: Never trust a computer you can’t lift.” Once again the roar almost drowned out its

final lines. “Obviously, I can talk. But right now I’d like to sit back and listen. So it is with

considerable pride that I introduce a man who’s been like a father to me, Steve Jobs.”

Pandemonium erupted, with people in the crowd jumping up and down and pumping their fists

in a frenzy. Jobs nodded slowly, a tight-lipped but broad smile on his face, then looked down

and started to choke up. The ovation continued for five minutes.

After the Macintosh team returned to Bandley 3 that afternoon, a truck pulled into the parking

lot and Jobs had them all gather next to it. Inside were a hundred new Macintosh computers, each

personalized with a plaque. “Steve presented them one at a time to each team member, with a

handshake and a smile, as the rest of us stood around cheering,” Hertzfeld recalled. It had been a

grueling ride, and many egos had been bruised by Jobs’s obnoxious and rough management style.

But neither Raskin nor Wozniak nor Sculley nor anyone else at the company could have pulled off the

creation of the Macintosh. Nor would it likely have emerged from focus groups and committees.

On the day he unveiled the Macintosh, a reporter from Popular Science asked Jobs what type

of market research he had done. Jobs responded by scoffing, “Did Alexander

 

Graham Bell do any

market research

before he invented

the telephone?”

www.shc419.com

The launch of the Macintosh in January 1984 propelled Jobs into

The launch of the Macintosh in January 1984 propelled Jobs into an even higher orbit of celebrity,

as was evident during a trip to Manhattan he took at the time. He went to a party that Yoko Ono

threw for her son, Sean Lennon, and gave the nine-year-old a Macintosh. The boy loved it. The artists

 

Andy Warhol and Keith Haring were there, and they were so enthralled by what they could create with the

machine that the contemporary art world almost took an ominous turn. “I drew a circle,” Warhol

exclaimed proudly after using QuickDraw. Warhol insisted that Jobs take a computer to Mick Jagger.

 

When Jobs arrived at the rock star’s townhouse, Jagger seemed baffled. He didn’t quite know who

Jobs was. Later Jobs told his team, “I think he was on drugs. Either that or he’s brain-damaged.” Jagger’s

daughter Jade, however, took to the computer immediately and started drawing with MacPaint,

so Jobs gave it to her instead.

ingredients. Another part of the recipe was media coverage. Jobs found ways to ignite

blasts of publicity that were so powerful the frenzy would feed on itself, like a chain

reaction. It was a phenomenon that he would be able to replicate whenever there was a

big product launch, from the Macintosh in 1984 to the iPad in 2010. Like a conjurer, he

could pull the trick off over and over again, even after journalists had seen it happen a dozen

times and knew how it was done. Some of the moves he had learned from Regis McKenna,

who was a pro at cultivating and stroking prideful reporters. But Jobs had his own intuitive

sense of how to stoke the excitement, manipulate the competitive instincts of journalists,

and trade exclusive access for lavish treatment.

In December 1983 he took his elfin engineering wizards, Andy Hertzfeld and Burrell Smith, to

New York to visit Newsweek to pitch a story on “the kids who created the Mac.” After giving

a demo of the Macintosh, they were taken upstairs to meet Katharine Graham, the legendary

proprietor, who had an insatiable interest in whatever was new. Afterward the magazine sent its

technology columnist and a photographer to spend time in Palo Alto with Hertzfeld and Smith.

The result was a flattering and smart four-page profile of the two of them, with pictures that made

them look like cherubim of a new age. The article quoted Smith saying what he wanted to do next:

“I want to build the computer of the 90’s. Only I want to do it tomorrow.” The article also described

the mix of volatility and charisma displayed by his boss: “Jobs sometimes defends his ideas with highly

vocal displays of temper that aren’t always bluster; rumor has it that he has threatened to fire employees

for insisting that his computers should have cursor keys, a feature that Jobs considers obsolete.

But when he is on his best behavior, Jobs is a curious blend of charm and impatience, oscillating between

 

shrewd reserve and his

favorite expression

of enthusiasm:

‘Insanely great.’”

www.sha419.com

He ended up not needing to. The agency was able to sell

He ended up not needing to. The agency was able to sell off the thirty-second time slot, but in an act

of passive defiance it didn’t sell the longer one. “We told them that we couldn’t sell the sixty-second slot,

 

though in truth we didn’t try,” recalled Lee Clow. Sculley, perhaps to avoid a showdown with either the

board or Jobs, decided to let Bill Campbell, the head of marketing, figure out what to do. Campbell,

a former football coach, decided to throw the long bomb. “I think we ought to go for it,” he told his team.

a bushy beard, wild hair, goofy grin, and twinkling eyes named Lee Clow, who was the

creative director of the agency’s office in the Venice Beach section of Los Angeles. Clow

was savvy and fun, in a laid-back yet focused way, and he forged a bond

with Jobs that would last three decades.

Clow and two of his team, the copywriter Steve Hayden and the art director Brent Thomas,

had been toying with a tagline that played off the George Orwell novel: “Why 1984 won’t be like

1984.” Jobs loved it, and asked them to develop it for the Macintosh launch. So they put together

a storyboard for a sixty-second ad that would look like a scene from a sci-fi movie. It featured a

rebellious young woman outrunning the Orwellian thought police and throwing a

sledgehammer into a screen showing a mind-controlling speech by Big Brother.

The concept captured the zeitgeist of the personal computer revolution. Many young people,

especially those in the counterculture, had viewed computers as instruments that could be used by

Orwellian governments and giant corporations to sap individuality. But by the end of the 1970s,

they were also being seen as potential tools for personal empowerment. The ad cast Macintosh

as a warrior for the latter cause—a cool, rebellious, and heroic company that was the only thing

standing in

 

the way of the big evil

corporation’s plan for

world domination

and total mind control.

www.sh419dd.com

Early in the third quarter of Super Bowl XVIII, the dominant Raiders

Early in the third quarter of Super Bowl XVIII, the dominant Raiders scored a touchdown against

the Redskins and, instead of an instant replay, television screens across the nation went black

for an ominous two full seconds. Then an eerie black-and-white image of drones marching to

 

spooky music began to fill the screen. More than ninety-six million people watched an ad that was

unlike any they’d seen before. At its end, as the drones watched in horror the vaporizing of Big

Brother, an announcer calmly intoned, “On January 24th, Apple Computer will introduce

Macintosh. And you’ll see why 1984 won’t be like ‘1984.’”

 

evoked the dystopian aura of Blade Runner. Just at the moment when Big Brother announces

“We shall prevail!” the heroine’s hammer smashes the screen and it vaporizes

in a flash of light and smoke.

When Jobs previewed the ad for the Apple sales force at the meeting in Hawaii, they

were thrilled. So he screened it for the board at its December 1983 meeting. When the

lights came back on in the boardroom, everyone was mute. Philip Schlein, the CEO of

Macy’s California, had his head on the table. Mike Markkula stared silently; at first it

seemed he was overwhelmed by the power of the ad. Then he spoke: “Who wants to

move to find a new agency?” Sculley recalled, “Most of them thought it was the worst

commercial they had ever seen.” Sculley himself got cold feet. He asked Chiat/Day to

sell off the two commercial spots—one sixty seconds, the other

thirty—that they had purchased.

Jobs was beside himself. One evening Wozniak, who had been floating into and out of

Apple for the previous two years, wandered into the Macintosh building. Jobs grabbed

him and said, “Come over here and look at this.” He pulled out a VCR and played the ad.

“I was astounded,” Woz recalled. “I thought it was the most incredible thing.” When Jobs

said the board had decided not to run it during the Super Bowl, Wozniak asked what the

cost of the time slot was. Jobs told him $800,000. With his usual

 

impulsive goodness,

Wozniak immediately

offered, “Well, I’ll

pay half if you will.”

www.shlfao.com

The launch event was scheduled for the Apple annual stockholders’

The launch event was scheduled for the Apple annual stockholders’ meeting on January

24—eight days away—at the Flint Auditorium of De Anza Community College. The television

ad and the frenzy of press preview stories were the first two components in what would

 

become the Steve Jobs playbook for making the introduction of a new product seem like an

epochal moment in world history. The third component was the public unveiling of the

product itself, amid fanfare and flourishes, in front of an audience of adoring faithful mixed

with journalists who were primed to be swept up in the excitement.

 

ethic by sharing his design for the Apple I for free, it was Jobs who insisted that they sell

the boards instead. He was also the one who, despite Wozniak’s reluctance, wanted to turn

Apple into a corporation and not freely distribute stock options to the friends who had been

in the garage with them. Now he was about to launch the Macintosh, a machine that violated

many of the principles of the hacker’s code: It was overpriced; it would have no slots, which

meant that hobbyists could not plug in their own expansion cards or jack into the motherboard

to add their own new functions; and it took special tools just to open the plastic case. It was

a closed and controlled system, like something designed by Big Brother rather than by a hacker.

So the “1984” ad was a way of reaffirming, to himself and to the world, his desired self-image.

The heroine, with a drawing of a Macintosh emblazoned on her pure white tank top, was a renegade

out to foil the establishment. By hiring Ridley Scott, fresh off the success of Blade Runner, as the

director, Jobs could attach himself and Apple to the cyberpunk ethos of the time. With the ad,

Apple could identify itself with the rebels and hackers

 

who thought differently,

and Jobs could reclaim

his right to identify

with them as well.

sh419dd.com

The entire information age? Was George Orwell right about 1984?”

The entire information age? Was George Orwell right about 1984?” At that moment a screen

came down from the ceiling and showed a preview of an upcoming sixty-second television ad for

the Macintosh. In a few months it was destined to make advertising history, but in the meantime

it served its purpose of rallying Apple’s demoralized sales force. Jobs had always been able to draw

energy by imagining himself as a rebel pitted against the forces of darkness. Now he was

able to energize his troops with the same vision.

 

Jobs was at the Grand Hyatt in Manhattan, preparing for the press previews, so a Sunday morning

conference call was scheduled. The software manager calmly explained the situation to Jobs, while

Hertzfeld and the others huddled around the speakerphone holding their breath. All they needed

was an extra two weeks. The initial shipments to the dealers could have a version of the software

labeled “demo,” and these could be replaced as soon as the new code was finished at the end of

the month. There was a pause. Jobs did not get angry; instead he spoke in cold, somber tones. He

told them they were really great. So great, in fact, that he knew they could get this done. “There’s

no way we’re slipping!” he declared. There was a collective gasp in the Bandley building work space.

“You guys have been working on this stuff for months now, another couple weeks isn’t going to make

that much of a difference. You may as well get it over with. I’m going to ship the code a week from

Monday, with your names on it.”

“Well, we’ve got to finish it,” Steve Capps said. And so they did. Once again, Jobs’s reality distortion

field pushed them to do what they had thought impossible. On Friday Randy Wigginton brought in a

huge bag of chocolate-covered espresso beans for the final three all-nighters. When Jobs arrived at

work at 8:30 a.m. that Monday, he found Hertzfeld sprawled nearly comatose on the couch. They talked

for a few minutes about a remaining tiny glitch, and Jobs decreed that it wasn’t a problem. Hertzfeld

dragged himself to his blue Volkswagen Rabbit (license plate: MACWIZ) and drove home to bed.

A short while later Apple’s Fremont factory began to roll out boxes emblazoned with the colorful line

 

drawings of the Macintosh.

Real artists ship, Jobs had

declared, and now the

Macintosh team had.

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